Egyptian cuisine's history goes back to Ancient Egypt. Archaeological excavations have found that workers on the Great Pyramids of Giza were paid in bread, beer, and onions, apparently their customary diet as peasants in the Egyptian countryside. Dental analysis of occasional desiccated loaves found in tombs confirm this, in addition to indicating that ancient Egyptian bread was made with flour from emmer wheat. Though beer disappeared as a mainstay of Egyptian life following the Muslim conquest of Egypt in the year 654, onions remain the primary vegetable for flavoring and nutrition in Egyptian food. Beans were also a primary source of protein for the mass of the Egyptian populace, as they remain today.

Egyptian cuisine is notably conducive to vegetarian- and vegan diets, as it relies so heavily on vegetable dishes. Though food in Alexandria and the coasts of Egypt tends to use a great deal of fish and other seafood, for the most part Egyptian cuisine is based on foods that grow out of the ground. Meat has been very expensive for most Egyptians throughout history, and a great deal of vegetarian dishes have developed to work around this economic reality.

Bread

Bread forms the backbone of Egyptian cuisine. Bread is consumed at almost all Egyptian meals; a working-class or rural Egyptian meal might consist of little more than bread and beans. The local bread is a form of hearty, thick, glutenous pita bread called Eish Masri or Eish Balad .In modern Egypt, the government subsidizes bread, dating back to a Nasser-era policy. In 2008, a major food crisis caused ever-longer bread lines at government-subsidized bakeries where there would normally be none; occasional fights broke out over bread, leading to fear of rioting. Egyptian dissidents and outside observers of the former National Democratic Party regime frequently criticized the bread subsidy as an attempt to buy off the Egyptian urban working classes in order to encourage acceptance of the authoritarian system; nevertheless, the subsidy has continued after the 2011 Revolution.

On a culinary level, bread is most commonly used as an edible utensil besides providing the carbohydrate and much of the protein in the Egyptian diet. Egyptians use bread to scoop up food, sauces, and dips and to wrap kebabs, falafel, and the like in the manner of sandwiches. Most pita breads are baked at high temperatures (450°F or 232°C), causing the flattened rounds of dough to puff up dramatically. When removed from the oven, the layers of baked dough remain separated inside the deflated pita, which allows the bread to be opened into pockets, creating a space for use in various dishes.

Aish Merahrah  is an Egyptian flat bread made with 5-10% ground fenugreek seeds and maize. It is part of the traditional diet of the Egyptian countryside, prepared locally in village homes. The loaves are flat and wide, and usually about 50 cm in diameter. The bread is made of maize flour that has been made into a soft dough that is fermented overnight with a sourdough starter, shaped into round loaves that are then allowed to rise or "proof" for 30 minutes before being flattened into round disks, which are then baked. They can be kept for days in an airtight container. The addition of fenugreek seeds increases the protein content, storage length and digestibility of the bread; on the other hand, it causes the eater to exude a distinctive odor in his or her sweat, which is occasionally mocked by more urban Egyptians.

Entrees

Ful Medames, one of Egypt's national dishes, served with sliced eggs and vegetables.

Egyptian cuisine is characterized by dishes such as Ful Medames, Koshari, rice-stuffed pigeon, 'Molokheyya, and Fetir Meshaltet. Egyptian cuisine also shares similarities with food of the Eastern Mediterranean region, such as rice-stuffed vegetables, grape leaves, Shawerma, Kebab, and Baba Ghannoug .

Some Egyptians consider Koshari - a mixture of rice, lentils, and macaroni - to be the national dish. In addition, Ful Medames (mashed fava beans) is one of the most popular dishes. Fava bean is also used in making falafel (also known as "ta`meyya"), which originated in Egypt and spread to other parts of the Middle East.

Kushari served at an Egyptian restaurant in Cairo.
Fried falafel (ta`meyya)

Ancient Egyptians are known to have used a lot of garlic and onion in their everyday dishes. Fresh mashed garlic with other herbs is used in spicy tomato salad and is also stuffed in boiled or baked aubergines (eggplant). Garlic fried with coriander is added to Mulukhiyya , a popular green soup made from finely chopped jute leaves, sometimes with chicken or rabbit. Fried onions can be also added to Koshari.

Dish Definition
Baba Ghannoug A condiment made with eggplants, chickpeas, lemon juice, salt, pepper, parsley, cumin and oil.
Du'aah A dry mixture of chopped nuts, seeds, Middle Eastern spices, and flavors.
Kabab Usually of lamb meat, chops and minced meat on skewers grilled on charcoal.
Kofta
Kebda Fried liver, with seasonings. It is seen as something of an Alexandrine specialty, where it is known as Kibda Iskindiraniyya.
Keshk A milk or yogurt savory pudding, made with flour, sometimes seasoned with fried onions, chicken broth, and/or boiled chicken.
Maḥshi waraa enab Grape leaves stuffed with a rice mixture that can be made either with sauteed ground beef or vegetarian style. The rice is seasoned with crushed red tomatoes, onion, parsley, dill, salt, pepper and Egyptian spices. This mixture is then stuffed and rolled into an individual grape leaf, placed in a pot and topped with tomato sauce and lemon or lime.
Mesa'a` Sliced eggplants that are lightly grilled and placed in a flat pan with sliced onions, green peppers, and jalapea It is then covered with a red sauce made of tomato paste and Egyptian spices. This pan is cooked in the oven for 30 to 40 minutes at 350 degrees.
Molokheyyah Green soup prepared in various styles, wherein the mallow leaves are very finely chopped, with ingredients such as garlic and coriander added to give it a characteristic aromatic taste.
Roz Meaammar A rice dish made by adding milk (and frequently butter or cream) and chicken stock or broth to cooked rice and subsequently baking it in an oven. Frequently substituted for plain white rice at festive occasions and large family meals.
Shawerma A popular sandwich of shredded beef, lamb or chicken meat, usually rolled in pita bread with Tahina sauce. It is a relatively recent import from Levantine cuisine, possibly brought by Lebanese immigrants, but it has been incorporated into the Egyptian kitchen.
Tehina sesame paste dip or spread made of sesame tahini, lemon juice, and garlic. Typically served with pita bread.
Tehina salad a condiment made with sesame butter, chickpeas, vinegar, lemon juice, salt, pepper, parsley, cumin and olive oil.
Bram rice Rice made with milk in a special kind of plate, usually stuffed with chicken liver
Kobeiba Kofta with bulghur wheat and meat
Macaroni bichamel An Egyptian variant of the Greek pastitsio, typically incorporating Gebna  (Egyptian Sardo or Pecorino cheese)
Shakshouka Eggs with tomato sauce and vegetables. An import from Moroccan cuisine, it has since become Egyptianized.
Samak mashwy Grilled fish. Like most fish dishes, a specialty of Alexandria.
Samak makly Fried fish. Again, a specialty of Alexandria.
Torly A tray of baked squash, potatoes, carrots, onions, and tomato sauce
Calamari Squid, fried and served with tartar sauce, or grilled.
A slice of Egyptian Macaroni Bichamel

Desserts

Basbousa topped with walnut.

Egyptian desserts are different from other Eastern Mediterranean desserts. Basbousa , sometimes called Harissa (in Morocco and Alexandria), is a spicy dish made from semolina and is soaked in a sugar syrup. It is usually topped with almonds and traditionally cut vertically into pieces so that each piece resembles a diamond shape. Baklava  is a sweet dish made from many layers of phyllo pastry, an assortment of nuts, and soaked in a sweet syrup. Eish el-Saraya Fatir are pancakes (filo dough) stuffed with everything from eggs to apricots or fruit of choice. Polvor is a common dish in all of North Africa. It is a sweet dish similar to kahk but much thinner. It is like shortbread and is usually topped with roasted almonds.

Kahk is a traditional sweet dish served most commonly during Breakfast Feast in Egypt. It is a shortbread biscuit covered with icing sugar, which may be stuffed with dates, walnuts, or agameya  (like Turkish-delight) or just served plain. Kunāfah is a dish of batter "fingers" fried on a hot grill and stuffed with nuts (usually pistachios), meats, heavy whipped cream or sweets. Luqmat al-Qadi literally translates to "The Judge's Bite". They are small, round donuts which are crunchy on the outside and soft and syrupy on the inside. They may be served with dusted cinnamon and powdered sugar. Qatayef  is a dessert reserved for the Muslim holiday of Ramadan, a sort of sweet crepe filled with cheese or nuts. Roz be laban is made with short grain white rice, full-cream milk, sugar, and vanilla. It may be served dusted with cinnamon. Umm Ali a national dish of Egypt, is a raisin cake soaked in milk and served hot.

Other desserts include:

  • Feteer meshaltet
  • Couscous Egyptian style.
  • Halawa .
  • Honey and coconut pie.
  • Ladida .
  • Malban
  • Mehalabeyya .
  • Melabbes

Cakes

Traditional apple cakes are seasoned with various spices such as nutmeg or cinnamon, which provide additional flavour. Upon the addition of spices the batter can also be accompanied by crushed nuts, the most popular being walnuts and almonds. Sponge cake is a cake based on flour (usually wheat flour), sugar, and eggs, sometimes leavened with baking powder, that derives its structure from an egg foam into which the other ingredients are folded Vanilla slice is a pastry made of several layers of puff pastry alternating with a sweet filling, typically pastry cream, but sometimes whipped cream, or jam. It is usually glazed with icing or fondant in alternating white and brown (chocolate) strips, and combed.



Egyptian cuisineEgypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia...

consists of the local culinary traditions of
. Egyptian cuisine makes heavy use of legume
Legume
A legume in botanical writing is a plant in the family Fabaceae , or a fruit of these specific plants. Alegume fruit is a simple dry fruit that develops from a simple carpel and usually dehisces on two sides. A common name for this type of fruit is a pod, although "pod" is also applied to a few...

s and vegetable
Vegetable
The noun vegetable usually means an edible plant or part of a plant other than a sweet fruit or seed. This usually means the leaf, stem, or root of a plant....

s, as Egypt's rich Nile Valley and Delta
Nile Delta
The Nile Delta is the delta formed in Northern Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. It is one of the world's largest river deltas—from Alexandria in the west to Port Said in the east, it covers some 240 km of Mediterranean coastline—and is a rich...

produce large quantities of high-quality crops.

History and characteristics



Egyptian cuisine's history goes back to
Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. It was part of a larger complex of civilizations, the Nile Valley Civilizations, of which regions south of Egypt are a part...

. Archaeological excavations have found that workers on the Great Pyramids of Giza were paid in bread
Bread
Bread is a staple food prepared by cooking a dough of flour and water and frequently additional ingredients. Doughs are usually baked, but in some cuisines breads are steamed, fried, or baked on an unoiled skillet. It may be leavened or unleavened...

, beer
Beer
Beer is the world's most widely consumed andprobably the oldest of alcoholic beverages; it is the third most popular drink overall, after water and tea. It is produced by the brewing and fermentation of starches, mainly derived from cereal grains—most commonly malted barley, although wheat, maize ,...

, and onion
Onion
Onion is a term used for many plants in the genus Allium. They are known by the common name "onion" but, used without qualifiers, it usually refers to Allium cepa. Allium cepa is also known as the "garden onion" or "bulb" onion...

s, apparently their customary diet as peasants
Fellah
Fellah , also alternatively known as Fallah is a peasant, farmer or agricultural laborer in the Middle East...

in the Egyptian countryside. Dental analysis of the mummified bodies
Mummy
A mummy is a corpse whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or incidental exposure to chemicals, extreme coldness , very low humidity, or lack of air when bodies are submerged in bogs. Presently, the oldest discovered mummified human corpse was a decapitated head dated as...

of these workers seems to indicate that the bread was chewy and coarse but hearty, rather like the bread of modern Egypt; the occasional desiccated loaves found in tombs confirm this, in addition to indicating that ancient Egyptian bread was made with flour from emmer
Emmer
Emmer wheat , also known as farro especially in Italy, is a low yielding, awned wheat. It was one of the first crops domesticated in the Near East...

wheat. Though beer disappeared as a mainstay of Egyptian life following the Muslim conquest of Egypt
Muslim conquest of Egypt
At the commencement of the Muslim conquest of Egypt, Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople. However, it had been occupied just a decade before by the Persian Empire under Khosrau II...

in the year 654, onions remain the primary vegetable for flavoring and nutrition in Egyptian food. Beans were also a primary source of protein for the mass of the Egyptian populace, as they remain today.

Egyptian cuisine is notably conducive to vegetarian
Vegetarianism
Vegetarianism is the practice of following a plant-based diet including fruits, vegetables, cereal grains, nuts, and seeds, mushrooms, with or without dairy products and eggs. Vegetarians do not eat meat, including red meat, game, poultry, fish, crustacea, and shellfish, and may abstain from...

- and vegan
Veganism
Veganism is a philosophy and lifestyle whose adherents seek to exclude the use of animals for food, clothing, or any other purpose. Vegans endeavor not to use or consume animal products of any kind...

diets, as it relies so heavily on vegetable dishes. Though food in Alexandria
Alexandria
Alexandria , with a population of 4.1 million, is the second-largest city in Egypt, and is the country's largest seaport, serving approximately 80% of Egypt's imports and exports. Alexandria is also an important tourist resort...

and the coasts of Egypt tends to use a great deal of fish
Fish (food)
Fish is a food consumed by many species, including humans. The word "fish" refers to both the animal and to the food prepared from it. Fish has been an important source of protein for humans throughout recorded history.-The term "fish":...

and other seafood
Seafood
Seafood refers to any sea animal or plant that is served as food and eaten by humans. Seafoods include seawater animals, such as fish and shellfish...

, for the most part Egyptian cuisine is based on foods that grow out of the ground. Meat has been very expensive for most Egyptians throughout history, and a great deal of vegetarian dishes have developed to work around this economic reality.

Bread


Bread
forms the backbone of Egyptian cuisine. Bread is consumed at almost all Egyptian meals; a working-class or rural Egyptian meal might consist of little more than bread and beans. The local bread is a form of hearty, thick, gluten
Gluten
Gluten is a protein composite that appears in foods processed from wheat and related species, including barley and rye...

ous pita bread called Eish Masri or Eish Baladi (Egyptian Arabic
Egyptian Arabic
Egyptian Arabic is the language spoken by contemporary Egyptians...

: عيش ''ʿēsh; Modern Standard Arabic: ''ʿaīšh) rather than the Standard خبز khubz. The word "Eish" comes from the Semitic root  ʿ
Ayin
' or ' is the sixteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic . It is the twenty-first letter in the new Persian alphabet...

-I
Yodh
Yodh is the tenth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew Yud , Syriac and Arabic...

-Å
Shin (letter)
Shin is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician , Aramaic/Hebrew , and Arabic .Its sound value is a voiceless sibilant, or ....

with the meaning "to live, be alive." The word "''ʿaīšh" itself has the meaning of "life, way of living...; livelihood, subsistence" in Modern Standard and Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic , also known as Qur'anic or Koranic Arabic, is the form of the Arabic language used in literary texts from Umayyad and Abbasid times . It is based on the Medieval dialects of Arab tribes...

; folklore holds that this synonymity indicates the centrality of bread to Egyptian life. In modern Egypt, the government subsidizes
Subsidy
A subsidy is a form of financial assistance paid to a business or economic sector. Most subsidies are made by the government to producers or distributors in an industry to prevent the decline of that industry or an increase in the prices of its products or simply to encourage it to hire more labor...

bread, dating back to a Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser was the second President of Egypt from 1956 until his death...

-era policy. In 2008, a major food crisis
2007–2008 world food price crisis
The years 2007–2008 saw dramatic increases in world food prices, creating a global crisis and causing political and economical instability and social unrest in both poor and developed nations...

caused ever-longer bread lines at government-subsidized bakeries where there would normally be none; occasional fights broke out over bread, leading to fear of riot
Riot
A riot is a form of civil disorder characterized often by disorganized groups lashing out in a sudden and intense rash of violence against authority, property or people...

ing. Egyptian dissidents and outside observers of the regime frequently criticize the bread subsidy as an attempt to buy off the Egyptian urban working classes in order to encourage acceptance of the authoritarian regime in a policy reminiscent of the Imperial Roman
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean...

program of panem et circenses
Bread and circuses
"Bread and circuses" is a metaphor for a superficial means of appeasement. In the case of politics, the phrase is used to describe the creation of public approval, not through exemplary or excellent public service or public policy, but through the mere satisfaction of the immediate, shallow...

.

On a culinary level, bread is most commonly used as an edible utensil besides providing the
carbohydrate
Carbohydrate
A carbohydrate is an organic compound with the empirical formula Cmn, that is, consists only of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, with it in a 1:2:1 atom ratio. Carbohydrates can be viewed as hydrates of carbon, hence their name...

and much of the protein in the Egyptian diet. Egyptians use bread to scoop up food, sauces, and dips and to wrap kebab
Kebab
Kebab is a wide variety of meat dishes originating in Persia , and now found worldwide. In English, kebab with no qualification generally refers more specifically to shish kebab served on the skewer or döner kebab served wrapped in bread with a salad and a dressing...

s, falafel
Falafel
Falafel is a ball or patty made from ground chickpeas and/or fava beans. Falafel is usually served in a pita, which acts as a pocket, or wrapped in a flat bread known as lafa. The falafel balls are topped with salads, pickled vegetables and hot sauce, and drizzled with tahini-based sauces...

, and the like in the manner of sandwiches. Most pita breads are baked at high temperatures (850 °F or 450 °C), causing the flattened rounds of dough to puff up dramatically. When removed from the oven, the layers of baked dough remain separated inside the deflated pita, which allows the bread to be opened into pockets, creating a space for use in various dishes.

Aish Merahrah is an Egyptian flat bread made with 5 -10% ground fenugreek
Fenugreek
Fenugreek is a plant in the family Fabaceae. Fenugreek is used both as an herb and as a spice . It is cultivated worldwide as a semi-arid crop. It is frequently used in curry.-History:...

seeds and maize
Maize
Maize , known in many English-speaking countries as corn, is a grass domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times. The Aztecs and Mayans cultivated it in numerous varieties throughout central and southern Mexico, to cook or grind in a process called nixtamalization. Later...

. It is part of the traditional diet of the Egyptian countryside, prepared locally in village homes. The loaves are flat and wide, and usually about 50 cm in diameter. The bread is made of maize flour that has been made into a soft dough that is fermented overnight with a sourdough starter, shaped into round loaves that are then allowed to rise or "proof" for 30 minutes before being flattened into round disks, which are then baked. They can be kept for days in an airtight container. The addition of fenugreek seeds increases the protein content, storage length and digestibility of the bread; on the other hand, it causes the eater to exude a distinctive odor in his or her sweat
SWEAT
SWEAT is an OLN/TSN show hosted by Julie Zwillich that aired in 2003-2004.Each of the 13 half-hour episodes of SWEAT features a different outdoor sport: kayaking, mountain biking, ice hockey, beach volleyball, soccer, windsurfing, rowing, Ultimate, triathlon, wakeboarding, snowboarding, telemark...

, which is occasionally mocked by more urban Egyptians.

Entrées


Egyptian cuisine is characterized by dishes such as Ful Medames
Ful Medames
Ful Medammes , or simply Ful, is a Middle Eastern dish of cooked and mashed fava beans served with olive oil, chopped parsley, onion, garlic and lemon juice. Ful medammes is popular in the cuisines of Egypt, Somalia, Eritrea, Sudan, the Levant and Saudi Arabia.-History:The roots of fūl mudammas can...

, Kushari
Kushari
Koshary, often transliterated as koshary, kosheri or koshari, is a popular traditional Egyptian national dish. It consists of a base of rice, brown lentils, chickpeas, macaroni, and a topping of Egyptian garlic and vinegar and spicy tomato sauce . Fried onions are commonly added as a garnish...

, rice-stuffed pigeon, Mulukhiyya, and Fetir Meshaltet. Egyptian cuisine also shares similarities with food of the Eastern Mediterranean
Mediterranean Sea
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Anatolia and Europe, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant...

region, such as rice-stuffed vegetables, grape leaves, Shawerma, Kebab
Kebab
Kebab is a wide variety of meat dishes originating in Persia , and now found worldwide. In English, kebab with no qualification generally refers more specifically to shish kebab served on the skewer or döner kebab served wrapped in bread with a salad and a dressing...

, Falafel
Falafel
Falafel is a ball or patty made from ground chickpeas and/or fava beans. Falafel is usually served in a pita, which acts as a pocket, or wrapped in a flat bread known as lafa. The falafel balls are topped with salads, pickled vegetables and hot sauce, and drizzled with tahini-based sauces...

(ta`meyya), Baba Ghannoug, and baklava
Baklava
Baklava is a rich, sweet pastry made of layers of phyllo dough filled with chopped nuts and sweetened with syrup or honey. It is characteristic of the cuisines of the former Ottoman Empire and much of central and southwest Asia....

(ba'lāwa).

Some
Egyptians
Egyptians
Egyptians are a nation of Mediterranean North Africans indigenous to Egypt.Egyptian identity is closely tied to the Geography of Egypt, dominated by the lower Nile Valley, the small strip of cultivable land stretching from the First Cataract to the Mediterranean and enclosed by desert both to the...

consider Kushari
Kushari
Koshary, often transliterated as koshary, kosheri or koshari, is a popular traditional Egyptian national dish. It consists of a base of rice, brown lentils, chickpeas, macaroni, and a topping of Egyptian garlic and vinegar and spicy tomato sauce . Fried onions are commonly added as a garnish...

- a mixture of rice, lentils, and macaroni - to be the national dish
National dish
A national dish is a dish, food or a drink that represents a particular country, nation or region. It is usually food that has naturally developed or popular in that country....

. In addition, Ful Medames
Ful Medames
Ful Medammes , or simply Ful, is a Middle Eastern dish of cooked and mashed fava beans served with olive oil, chopped parsley, onion, garlic and lemon juice. Ful medammes is popular in the cuisines of Egypt, Somalia, Eritrea, Sudan, the Levant and Saudi Arabia.-History:The roots of fūl mudammas can...

(mashed fava beans) is one of the most popular dishes. Fava bean is also used in making falafel
Falafel
Falafel is a ball or patty made from ground chickpeas and/or fava beans. Falafel is usually served in a pita, which acts as a pocket, or wrapped in a flat bread known as lafa. The falafel balls are topped with salads, pickled vegetables and hot sauce, and drizzled with tahini-based sauces...

(also known as "ta`meyya"), which originated in Egypt and spread to other parts of the Middle East.



Ancient Egyptians are known to have used a lot of garlic and onion in their everyday dishes. Fresh mashed garlic with other herbs is used in spicy tomato salad and is also stuffed in boiled or baked aubergines (eggplant). Garlic fried with coriander is added to Mulukhiyya, a popular green soup made from finely chopped
jute
Jute
Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fibre that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is produced from plants in the genus Corchorus, which has been classified in the family Tiliaceae, or more recently in Malvaceae....

leaves, sometimes with chicken or rabbit. Fried onions can be also added to Kushari
Kushari
Koshary, often transliterated as koshary, kosheri or koshari, is a popular traditional Egyptian national dish. It consists of a base of rice, brown lentils, chickpeas, macaroni, and a topping of Egyptian garlic and vinegar and spicy tomato sauce . Fried onions are commonly added as a garnish...

.
Dish Definition
Baba Ghannoug A condiment made with eggplants, chickpea
Chickpea
The chickpea is an edible legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae...

s, lemon juice, salt, pepper, parsley
Parsley
Parsley is a bright green biennial herb, often used as spice. It is common in Middle Eastern, European, and American cooking...

, cumin
Cumin
Cumin is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native from the east Mediterranean to East India...

and oil.
Du'aah A dry mixture of chopped nuts, seeds, Middle Eastern spices, and flavors.
Kabab Usually of lamb meat, chops and minced meat on skewers grilled on charcoal.
Kofta
Kofta
Kofta is a Middle Eastern and South Asian meatball or meatloaf.In the simplest form, koftas consist of balls of minced or ground meat — usually beef or lamb — mixed with spices and/or onions...

Kibda liver, with seasonings. It is seen as something of an Alexandrine specialty, where it is known as Kibda Iskindiraniyya.
Kishk A milk or yogurt savory pudding
Pudding
Pudding most often refers to a dessert, but may also refer to a savory dish.In the United Kingdom and some Commonwealth countries, pudding refers to rich, fairly homogeneous starch- or dairy-based desserts such as rice pudding and Christmas pudding, or, informally, any dessert...

, made with flour, sometimes seasoned with fried onions, chicken broth, and/or boiled chicken.
Maḥshi A stuffing of rice, seasoned with herbs and spices, into vegetables like green peppers, aubergine
Aubergine
The eggplant, aubergine, melongene, brinjal, or guinea squash is a plant of the family Solanaceae and genus Solanum. It bears a fruit of the same name, commonly used as a vegetable in cooking...

s, courgettes, tomato
Tomato
The tomato is a savory, typically red, edible fruit, as well as the plant which bears it. Originating in South America, the tomato was spread around the world following the Spanish colonization of the Americas, and its many varieties are now widely grown, often in greenhouses in cooler...

es, or cabbage
Cabbage
Cabbage is a popular cultivar of the species Brassica oleracea Linne of the Family Brassicaceae and is used as a leafy green vegetable...

leaves. The stuffed vegetable is then placed in a pot and topped with tomato sauce and lemon or lime.
Maḥshi ḥamām Pigeon stuffed with rice or wheat and herbs, then roasted or grilled.
Maḥshi waraa enab Grape
Grape
A grape is a non-climacteric fruit that grows on the perennial and deciduous woody vines of the genus Vitis. Grapes can be eaten raw or used for making jam, juice, jelly, vinegar, wine, grape seed extracts, raisins, and grape seed oil. Grapes are also used in some kinds of confectionery.- History...

leaves stuffed with a rice mixture that can be made either with sauteed ground beef or vegetarian style. The rice is seasoned with crushed red tomatoes, onion, parsley, dill
Dill
Dill is a short-lived perennial herb. It is the sole species of the genus Anethum, though classified by some botanists in a related genus as Peucedanum graveolens C.B.Clarke.-Growth:...

, salt, pepper and Egyptian spices. This mixture is then stuffed and rolled into an individual grape leaf, placed in a pot and topped with tomato sauce and lemon
Lemon
The lemon is both a small evergreen tree native to Asia and the tree's oval yellow fruit. The fruit is used for culinary and nonculinary purposes throughout the world – primarily for its juice, though the pulp and rind are also used, mainly in cooking and baking...

or lime (fruit)>lime.
Musa'a`ah jalapeños. It is then covered with a red sauce made of tomato paste and Egyptian spices. This pan is cooked in the oven for 30–40 minutes at 350 degrees.
Mulukhiyah Green soup prepared in various styles, wherein the mallow
Mallow
Mallow or Mallows may refer to:Nature:* Malvaceae, family of plants; in particular the following genera:** Abelmoschus** Althaea – Marsh mallow** Callirhoe – Poppy mallow** Corchorus – Jews Mallow, Molokia, Mlukhia...

leaves are very finely chopped, with ingredients such as garlic
Garlic
Allium sativum, commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, leek, chive, and rakkyo. Garlic has been used throughout history for both culinary and medicinal purposes. The garlic plant's bulb is the most commonly used part of...

and coriander
Coriander
Coriander is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae. Coriander is native to southern Europe and North Africa to southwestern Asia. It is a soft, hairless plant growing to tall. The leaves are variable in shape, broadly lobed at the base of the plant, and slender and feathery higher on the...

added to give it a characteristic aromatic taste.
Ruz Meaammar A rice dish made by adding milk (and frequently butter
Butter
Butter is a dairy product made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk. It is generally used as a spread and a condiment, as well as in cooking applications, such as baking, sauce making, and pan frying...

or cream
Cream
Cream is a dairy product that is composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization. In un-homogenized milk, over time, the lighter fat rises to the top. In the industrial production of cream this process is accelerated by using centrifuges called "separators"...

) and chicken stock or broth to cooked rice and subsequently baking it in an over. Frequently substituted for plain white rice at festive occasions and large family meals.
Shawerma A popular sandwich of shredded beef, lamb or chicken meat, usually rolled in pita bread with Tahina sauce. It is a relatively recent import from Levantine cuisine
Levantine cuisine
Levantine cuisine is the traditional cuisine of the Levant, known in Arabic as the Bilad ash-Sham. This region shared many culinary traditions under the Ottoman Empire which continue to be influential today...

, possibly brought by Lebanese immigrants, but it has been incorporated into the Egyptian kitchen.
Tehina sesame paste dip or spread made of sesame
Sesame
Sesame is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum. Numerous wild relatives occur in Africa and a smaller number in India...

tahini, lemon juice, and garlic. Typically served with pita bread.
Tehina salad a condiment made with sesame butter, chickpeas, vinegar
Vinegar
Vinegar is an acidic liquid produced from the fermentation of ethanol in a process that yields its key ingredient, acetic acid . It also may come in a diluted form. The acetic acid concentration typically ranges from 4% to 8% by volume for table vinegar and up to 18% for pickling...

, lemon juice, salt, pepper, parsley, cumin and olive oil.
Bram rice Rice made with milk in a special kind of plate, usually stuffed with chicken liver
Koubeiba Kofta with bulghur wheat and meat
Macaroni bechamel Greek pastitsio
Pastitsio
Pastitsio or macaronia tou fournou, which is the term mainly used in Cyprus, is a Greek or generally Middle Eastern baked pasta dish including pasta, meat sauce, and a custard or béchamel sauce...

, typically incorporating Gibna Rūmī (Egyptian Sardo or Pecorino
Pecorino
Pecorino is the name of a family of hard Italian cheeses made from ewe's milk. The word derives from pecora meaning ‘sheep’.Of the four main varieties of Pecorino, all of which have Protected Designation of Origin status under European Union law, Pecorino Romano is probably the best known outside...

cheese)
Shakshouka Eggs with tomato sauce and vegetables. An import from Moroccan cuisine, it has since become Egyptianized.
Samak mashwy Grilled fish. Like most fish dishes, a specialty of Alexandria.
Samak makly Fried fish. Again, a specialty of Alexandria.
Torly A tray of baked squash, potatoes, carrots, onions, and tomato sauce
Calamari Squid, fried and served with tartar sauce, or grilled.

  • Macarona béchamel
    Pastitsio
    Pastitsio or macaronia tou fournou, which is the term mainly used in Cyprus, is a Greek or generally Middle Eastern baked pasta dish including pasta, meat sauce, and a custard or béchamel sauce...

    , also known as "pastitsio" in Greece
    Greece
    Greece , also known as Hellas and officially the Hellenic Republic , is a country in southeastern Europe. Situated on the southern end of the Balkan Peninsula, Greece has land borders with Albania, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the east...

    , it consists of a mixture of penne
    Penne
    Penne is a type of pasta with cylinder-shaped pieces. Penne is the plural form of the Italian penna, deriving from Latin penna . In Italy, penne are produced in two main variants: "penne lisce" and "penne rigate" , the latter having ridges on each noodle...

    macaroni and béchamel sauce
    Béchamel sauce
    Béchamel sauce , also known as white sauce - although the Béchamel sauce is made with milk unlike the "sauce blanche" - is one of the mother sauces of French cuisine and is used in many recipes of the Italian cuisine, e.g. lasagne emiliane...

    , and usually one or two layers of cooked spiced meat with onions.
  • Beeftek (veal schnitzel; a French import)
  • Kirsha (Sheep gelatin with vegetables).
  • Bird Tongue (Orzo) Noodle Soup.
  • Bisara.
  • Duck.
  • Duqqa
    Duqqa
    Duqqa is an Egyptian side dish consisting of a mixture of herbs, nuts, probably hazelnut, and spices. It is typically used as a dip with bread or fresh vegetables, and eaten as an hors d'Å“uvre...

    .
  • Eggs with bastırma
    Pastirma
    Pastırma or bastırma is a highly seasoned, air-dried cured beef in the cuisines of the former Ottoman countries.-Etymology:The name pastırma is from . Pastırma is the gerund of the verb pastırmak , which means "to press"...

    .
  • Falafel
    Falafel
    Falafel is a ball or patty made from ground chickpeas and/or fava beans. Falafel is usually served in a pita, which acts as a pocket, or wrapped in a flat bread known as lafa. The falafel balls are topped with salads, pickled vegetables and hot sauce, and drizzled with tahini-based sauces...

    .
  • Ferakh panee (chiken schnitzel)
  • Feseekh
    Feseekh
    Fesikh is a traditional Egyptian fish dish consisting of fermented salted and dried gray mullet, of the mugil family, a saltwater fish that lives in both the Mediterranean and the Red Seas...

    (salted or fermented mullet
    Mullet (fish)
    The mullets or gray mullets are a family of ray-finned fish found worldwide in coastal temperate and tropical waters, and in some species in fresh water also. Mullets have served as an important source of food in Mediterranean Europe since Roman times...

    , generally eaten on the spring festival of Sham El Nessim
    Sham el nessim
    Sham ennisim is an Egyptian national holiday marking the beginning of spring. It always falls on the day after the Eastern Christian Easter...

    , which falls on Eastern
    Eastern Christianity
    Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, Northeastern Africa, and India over several centuries of religious antiquity. The term is generally used in Western Christianity to...

    Easter Monday
    Easter Monday
    Easter Monday is the day after Easter Sunday and is celebrated as a holiday in some largely Christian cultures, especially Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox cultures...

    ).
  • Ful medames
    Ful Medames
    Ful Medammes , or simply Ful, is a Middle Eastern dish of cooked and mashed fava beans served with olive oil, chopped parsley, onion, garlic and lemon juice. Ful medammes is popular in the cuisines of Egypt, Somalia, Eritrea, Sudan, the Levant and Saudi Arabia.-History:The roots of fūl mudammas can...

    .
  • Goose.
  • Kushari
    Kushari
    Koshary, often transliterated as koshary, kosheri or koshari, is a popular traditional Egyptian national dish. It consists of a base of rice, brown lentils, chickpeas, macaroni, and a topping of Egyptian garlic and vinegar and spicy tomato sauce . Fried onions are commonly added as a garnish...

    .
  • Lentil Soup.
  • Chicken liver
  • Beef liver
  • Mahshi (grape leaves dolma
    Dolma
    Dolma is a family of stuffed vegetable dishes in the cuisines of the former Ottoman Empire and surrounding regions such as Iran and the Caucasus and Central and South Asia. Perhaps the best-known is the grape-leaf dolma, or sarma. Common vegetables to stuff include zucchini, eggplant, tomato and...

    , cabbage, green pepper, eggplant, squash, aubergines, courgettes, tomatoes, onions).
  • Moussaqa'a
    Moussaka
    Moussaka from musaqqaa 'chilled', is an aubergine-based dish of the Balkans, Eastern Mediterranean, and the Middle East...

    .
  • Molokheyya
    Mulukhiyah
    Mulukhiyah, molokhia, mulukhiyya, malukhiyah, nalita, or Jew’s mallow is the leaves of jute and related Corchorus species used as a vegetable in Middle Eastern, East African, North African, and South Asian cuisine...

    (Egyptian style), with rabbits, chicken or other type of meat.
  • Pigeon (Hamaam) stuffed with rice.
  • Shish taouk
    Shish taouk
    Shish taouk is a traditional Arabic and Turkish shish kebab, which can also be found in Syrian, Iraqi and Lebanese cuisines, but is made in kabab houses in many cities around the world. A similar dish in Persian cuisine is the traditional jujeh kabab....

    ; a relatively recent import from the Levant.
  • Sayyadiyeh.
  • Ta'meyya (Falafel
    Falafel
    Falafel is a ball or patty made from ground chickpeas and/or fava beans. Falafel is usually served in a pita, which acts as a pocket, or wrapped in a flat bread known as lafa. The falafel balls are topped with salads, pickled vegetables and hot sauce, and drizzled with tahini-based sauces...

    ).
  • White (feta) cheese & tomato salad with olive oil and garlic.
  • Hummus
    Hummus
    Hummus is a Levantine Arab dip or spread made from cooked, mashed chickpeas, blended with tahini, olive oil, lemon juice, salt and garlic...

  • Tahini
    Tahini
    Tahini , zhimajiang , nerigoma , טחינה or sesame paste is a paste of ground sesame seeds used in cooking. North African and West Asian tahini is made of hulled, lightly roasted seeds...

  • Octopus
    Octopus
    The octopus is a cephalopod mollusc in the order Octopoda. Octopuses have two eyes and four pairs of arms, and like other cephalopods they are bilaterally symmetric. An octopus has a hard beak, with its mouth at the center point of the arms. Most octopuses have no internal or external skeleton,...

    (akhtaboot) (grilled).
  • Mussels (fried and served with tartar sauce or stuffed with rice filling).
  • Shrimp
    Shrimp
    Shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. Adult shrimp are filter feeding benthic animals living close to the bottom. They can live in schools and can swim rapidly backwards. Shrimp are an important...

  • (gambary) (salad, grilled or cooked with vegetables in güveç-casserole).
  • Fattah Masryah.
  • Bamyah,"beram bamyah".
  • Kawarea and Mumbar.
  • Dukkah

 

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